One of these, Howard Williams' The Ethics of Diet, was a 'biographical history of the literature of humane dietetics from the earliest period to the present day'". Tolstoy considered it an " excellent book ", and in he wrote the preface to the Russian translation. According to Tolstoy , pp. Jaime de Magalhaes Lima, a vegetarian and a Tolstoyan , used Williams book as a reference to write his conference O Vegetarismo e a Moralidade das racas. The book however became a rarity, only available in certain libraries. Howard Williams partial bibliography: Dialogues; namely, The dialogues of the gods, of the sea-gods, and of the dead; Zeus the tragedian, The ferry-boat, etc.
London, Bell, , by Lucian of Samosata, also trans. English letters and letterwriters of the eighteenth century: The ethics of diet; a biographical history of the literature of humane dietetics, from the earliest period to the present day. Broadbent, - Williams, Howard, According to Seneca the Elder, Ovid tended to the emotional, after the death of his brother at 20 years of age, Ovid renounced law and began travelling to Athens, Asia Minor, and Sicily. Ovids first recitation has been dated to around 25 BC, when he was eighteen and he was part of the circle centered on the patron Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus, and seems to have been a friend of poets in the circle of Maecenas.
He married three times and divorced twice by the time he was thirty years old and he had one daughter, who eventually bore him grandchildren.
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His last wife was connected in some way to the influential gens Fabia, the first 25 years of Ovids literary career were spent primarily writing poetry in elegiac meter with erotic themes. The chronology of early works is not secure, tentative dates. The authenticity of some of these poems has been challenged, between the publications of the two editions of the Amores can be dated the premiere of his tragedy Medea, which was admired in antiquity but is no longer extant.
Ovid may identify this work in his poetry as the carmen, or song. The Ars Amatoria was followed by the Remedia Amoris in the same year and this corpus of elegiac, erotic poetry earned Ovid a place among the chief Roman elegists Gallus, Tibullus, and Propertius, of whom he saw himself as the fourth member. Plutarch — Plutarch was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia. He is classified as a Middle Platonist, Plutarchs surviving works were written in Greek, but intended for both Greek and Roman readers. Plutarch was born to a prominent family in the town of Chaeronea, about 80 km east of Delphi.
The name of Plutarchs father has not been preserved, but based on the common Greek custom of repeating a name in alternate generations, the name of Plutarchs grandfather was Lamprias, as he attested in Moralia and in his Life of Antony. His brothers, Timon and Lamprias, are mentioned in his essays and dialogues. Rualdus, in his work Life of Plutarchus, recovered the name of Plutarchs wife, Timoxena, from internal evidence afforded by his writings.
A letter is still extant, addressed by Plutarch to his wife, bidding her not to grieve too much at the death of their two-year-old daughter, interestingly, he hinted at a belief in reincarnation in that letter of consolation. The exact number of his sons is not certain, although two of them, Autobulus and the second Plutarch, are often mentioned.
Plutarchs treatise De animae procreatione in Timaeo is dedicated to them, another person, Soklarus, is spoken of in terms which seem to imply that he was Plutarchs son, but this is nowhere definitely stated. Plutarch studied mathematics and philosophy at the Academy of Athens under Ammonius from 66 to 67, at some point, Plutarch took Roman citizenship. He lived most of his life at Chaeronea, and was initiated into the mysteries of the Greek god Apollo.
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For many years Plutarch served as one of the two priests at the temple of Apollo at Delphi, the site of the famous Delphic Oracle, twenty miles from his home. By his writings and lectures Plutarch became a celebrity in the Roman Empire, yet he continued to reside where he was born, at his country estate, guests from all over the empire congregated for serious conversation, presided over by Plutarch in his marble chair. Many of these dialogues were recorded and published, and the 78 essays, Plutarch held the office of archon in his native municipality, probably only an annual one which he likely served more than once.
He busied himself with all the matters of the town. The Suda, a medieval Greek encyclopedia, states that Emperor Trajan made Plutarch procurator of Illyria, however, most historians consider this unlikely, since Illyria was not a procuratorial province, and Plutarch probably did not speak Illyrian. Plutarch spent the last thirty years of his serving as a priest in Delphi.
He thus connected part of his work with the sanctuary of Apollo, the processes of oracle-giving. Michel de Montaigne — Michel Eyquem de Montaigne, Lord of Montaigne was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissance, known for popularizing the essay as a literary genre.
His work is noted for its merging of casual anecdotes and autobiography with serious intellectual insight, in his own lifetime, Montaigne was admired more as a statesman than as an author. Much of modern literary non-fiction has found inspiration in Montaigne and writers of all kinds continue to read him for his balance of intellectual knowledge. The family was wealthy, his great-grandfather, Ramon Felipe Eyquem, had made a fortune as a herring merchant and had bought the estate in His maternal grandfather, Pedro Lopez, from Zaragoza, was from a wealthy Marrano family who had converted to Catholicism and his maternal grandmother, Honorette Dupuy, was from a Catholic family in Gascony, France.
His mother lived a part of Montaignes life near him, and even survived him. Montaignes relationship with his father, however, is reflected upon. Montaignes education began in childhood and followed a pedagogical plan that his father had developed, refined by the advice of the latters humanist friends. The intellectual education of Montaigne was assigned to a German tutor and his father hired only servants who could speak Latin, and they also were given strict orders always to speak to the boy in Latin. The same rule applied to his mother, father, and servants, who were obliged to use only Latin words he himself employed, Montaignes Latin education was accompanied by constant intellectual and spiritual stimulation.
He was familiarized with Greek by a method that employed games, conversation. The atmosphere of the upbringing, although designed by highly refined rules taken under advisement by his father, created in the boys life the spirit of liberty. Duty by an unforced will, and of my own voluntary motion. Voltaire — Voltaire was a versatile writer, producing works in almost every literary form, including plays, poems, novels, essays, and historical and scientific works.
He wrote more than 21, letters and over two books and pamphlets. He was an advocate of civil liberties, despite the risk this placed him in under the strict censorship laws of the time. As a satirical polemicist, he made use of his works to criticize intolerance, religious dogma. Some speculation surrounds Voltaires date of birth, because he claimed he was born on 20 February as the son of a nobleman.
By the time he left school, Voltaire had decided he wanted to be a writer, against the wishes of his father, Voltaire, pretending to work in Paris as an assistant to a notary, spent much of his time writing poetry. When his father out, he sent Voltaire to study law. Nevertheless, he continued to write, producing essays and historical studies, Voltaires wit made him popular among some of the aristocratic families with whom he mixed.
From early on, Voltaire had trouble with the authorities for critiques of the government and these activities were to result in two imprisonments and a temporary exile to England. He mainly argued for tolerance and freedom of thought. He campaigned to eradicate priestly and aristo-monarchical authority, and supported a constitutional monarchy that protects peoples rights, the author adopted the name Voltaire in , following his incarceration at the Bastille.
Alexander Pope — Alexander Pope was an 18th-century English poet. He is best known for his verse and for his translation of Homer. Ediths sister Christiana was the wife of the miniature painter Samuel Cooper. Such schools, while illegal, were tolerated in some areas, in , his family moved to a small estate at Popeswood in Binfield, Berkshire, close to the royal Windsor Forest. This was due to strong anti-Catholic sentiment and a statute preventing Catholics from living within 10 miles of either London or Westminster, Pope would later describe the countryside around the house in his poem Windsor Forest.
He also studied languages and read works by English, French, Italian, Latin. After five years of study, Pope came into contact with figures from the London literary society such as William Wycherley, William Congreve, Samuel Garth, William Trumbull, at Binfield, he also began to make many important friends. One of them, John Caryll, was twenty years older than the poet and had many acquaintances in the London literary world.
He introduced the young Pope to the ageing playwright William Wycherley and to William Walsh, a minor poet and he also met the Blount sisters, Teresa and Martha, both of whom would remain lifelong friends. From the age of 12, he suffered health problems, such as Potts disease. His tuberculosis infection caused other problems including respiratory difficulties, high fevers, inflamed eyes. He grew to a height of only 1. Pope was already removed from society because he was Catholic, although he never married, he had many female friends to whom he wrote witty letters.
Allegedly, his lifelong friend Martha Blount was his lover, in May,, Popes Pastorals was published in the sixth part of Tonsons Poetical Miscellanies. The aim of the club was to satirise ignorance and pedantry in the form of the fictional scholar Martinus Scriblerus and he also made friends with Whig writers Joseph Addison and Richard Steele. Percy Bysshe Shelley — Percy Bysshe Shelley was one of the major English Romantic poets, and is regarded by some as among the finest lyric, as well as most influential, poets in the English language.
A radical in his poetry as well as in his political and social views, Shelley did not see fame during his lifetime, but recognition for his poetry grew steadily following his death. Shelleys close circle of friends included some of the most important progressive thinkers of the day, including his father-in-law, the philosopher William Godwin and Leigh Hunt.
Though Shelleys poetry and prose output remained steady throughout his life, most publishers, Shelley became a lodestone to the subsequent three or four generations of poets, including important Victorian and Pre-Raphaelite poets such as Robert Browning and Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Henry David Thoreaus civil disobedience was apparently influenced by Shelleys non-violence in protest, Shelleys popularity and influence has continued to grow in contemporary poetry circles. He was the eldest legitimate son of Sir Timothy Shelley, a Whig Member of Parliament for Horsham from —92 and he had four younger sisters and one much younger brother.
He received his education at home, tutored by the Reverend Evan Edwards of nearby Warnham. His cousin and lifelong friend Thomas Medwin, who lived nearby and it was a happy and contented childhood spent largely in country pursuits such as fishing and hunting. In , he entered the Syon House Academy of Brentford, in , Shelley entered Eton College, where he fared poorly, and was subjected to an almost daily mob torment at around noon by older boys, who aptly called these incidents Shelley-baits. Surrounded, the young Shelley would have his books torn from his hands and his clothes pulled at and this daily misery could be attributed to Shelleys refusal to take part in fagging and his indifference towards games and other youthful activities.
Because of these peculiarities he acquired the nickname Mad Shelley, Shelley possessed a keen interest in science at Eton, which he would often apply to cause a surprising amount of mischief for a boy considered to be so sensible. Shelley would often use an electric machine to charge the door handle of his room. His friends were particularly amused when his tutor, Mr Bethell, in attempting to enter his room, was alarmed at the noise of the electric shocks. His mischievous side was again demonstrated by his last bit of naughtiness at school, despite these jocular incidents, a contemporary of Shelley, W.
Mapping the south European ideological space: The structure of ideological space in Greece: The impact of globalization on national party systems. A chance to blame the government: Portuguese policies fostering international student mobility: Universalism, diversity and norms: Bricolage as conceptual tool for understanding access to healthcare in superdiverse populations. Doing community research with the community? Reflecting on practical issues. Integrating superdiversity in urban governance: Reflecting on international academic mobility through feminist lenses: Estado de bienestar bajo ataque: Brazilian narratives of migration: Politicity of care in the criticism towards gender stereotypes.
Deconstruyendo al inmigrante latinoamericano: Empoderamento, interseccionalidade e ciberativismo: Migration policies and institutional frameworks. Development and evolution in Portugal. Convivialidad intercultural religiosa o conflictividad en un barrio de Lisboa. Understanding healthcare practices in superdiverse neighbourhoods and developing the concept of welfare bricolage: Can stigma become a resource?
The mobilisation of aesthetic—corporal capital by female immigrant entrepreneurs from Brazil. Bairro da Mouraria em Lisboa: Engagement policies and practices: Do fado ao tango: The governance of the wolf-human relationship in Europe. Pharmaceuticalisation and the social management of sleep in old age.
Ageing and memory medication: Medications, youth therapeutic cultures and performance consumptions: Politics in the depressed republic: Media news agenda and trends in the electorate: The waves of democratization theories and Arab regimes: The national-populist logic of antiglobalization rhetoric in Greece. The social determinants of ideology: Relationship between the number of hours of informal care and the mental health status of caregivers.
The decivilizing effects of the financial system. El gobierno de la bancarrota: Buen trader, buen trading: Una lectura eliasiana de la crisis financiera. Portugal e Espanha La duda de Norbert Elias: Traditions and contradictions of sexual function definitions for Portuguese heterossexual men and women: Exploring gender in Portuguese bedrooms: Desigualdades sociais no mundo atual: Generators of sociological production in Portugal: Filhos de imigrantes africanos no mercado de trabalho: Os novos nomes do racismo: Imigrantes e estrutura social.
O ensino da sociologia: Without ceremony and without papers. The diversity of conjugal cohabitation in Portugal. Las procesiones de los otros. Public spaces and immigration in Seville: La identidad en juego: Football leagues as a space-time for cultural reproduction among immigrants. Ser latinos en Sevilla: Ecuatorianas y senegalesas en Sevilla.
The persistence of class inequality: Portugal in a global context. Qui dove la terra finisce e il mare comincia Silvio Berlusconi e il Portogallo. The institutionalization of Propaganda in the Fascist era: Lo Stato etico da Salazar a Marcelo Caetano. Le destre radicali e il liberalismo portoghese: The Fascist elites, government and the Grand Council. The effects of austerity measures on quality of healthcare services: Inventar percursos, reinventar realidades: The impact factor as a legitimator of the scientific knowledge produced: Publicidade digital e adblocking em Portugal — apropriar ou na?
People are the message? Social mobilization and social media in Brazil. What 'digital divide' between generations? A cross-national analysis using data from the world internet project. Movimento em rede e protestos no Brasil: P2P in the networked future of European cinema. The strategic strength of weak signal analysis. Telecommunications for the needy: From mass to networked communication: Futebol, identidade e media na Sociedade em Rede. Portuguesse views on Internet Mediated Communication.
The Catholic Church and the crisis: Back to the revolution: Protest and mobilisation in Portugal under austerity, — Contentious politics and student dissent in the twilight of the Portuguese dictatorship: La rivoluzione prima della rivoluzione. Um olhar interdisciplinar sobre os suplementos alimentares: A luta contra o cancro em Portugal.
To be or not to be an excellent football referee: Trade protectionism and intra-industry trade: Organizational practices for learning with work accidents throughout their information cycle. Trends and consequences of the technocratic paradigm of childbirth in Portugal: Toward an understanding of the quality of life construct: Internalized stigma and quality of life domains among people with mental illness: Interparental conflict and adolescents' self-representations: Clinical profiles of stigma experiences, self-esteem and social relationships among people with schizophrenia, depressive, and bipolar disorders.
Is it a fe male pain? Engendering pain management practices: Perceptions of quantitative methods in higher education: Why firms do not enrol in socio-technical networks empirical evidence from Portugal. Quantitative methods in higher education: Towards the liberation of labour markets in Europe. Inhibiting factors in a hypothetical shoplifting situation - a contribution to crime prevention. Vitimologia e medo do crime.
Social work practices and the ecological sustainability of socially vulnerable communities. Levels of governance in policy innovation cycles in community education: The power of social networks: Exploring the hidden influence of international treaty secretariats: The global diffusion of regulatory instruments: International patterns of environmental policy change and convergence. The international sources of policy convergence: The diffusion of new environmental policy instruments. Strategic environmental planning and uncertainty: National environmental policy planning in OECD countries: Mulheres nas principais orquestras portuguesas.
Sarah Affonso, mulher de artista. Portugal, national identity and Portuguese youth. Falar da vida II.
Falar da vida I. Problemas e virtudes na defesa da biografia. Identidade nacional e social dos jovens. Mecenato cultural de empresa em Portugal. Bienais e artistas em Cerveira. O sentido do desentendimento: Exploring unobserved household living conditions in multilevel choice modeling: Multilevel effects of wealth on women's contraceptive use in Mozambique. Estudantes estrangeiros em Portugal: Disentangling the relation between wealth and contraceptive use in India: Dominance of sterilization and alternative choices of contraception in India: An appraisal of the socioeconomic impact.
Portugal between and Fertility differentials and educational attainment in Portugal: O adiamento da fecundidade em Portugal Portuguese fertility transition and the multiple response system. A ilha da Madeira. Sisto Quaranta e la memoria del Quadraro. L'approccio qualitativo per la comprensione e l'interpretazione del reale. Health and social problems associated with recent Novel Psychoactive Substance NPS use amongst marginalised, nightlife and online users in six European countries.
The impact of polytechnic institutes on the local economy. Wavering between hope and disenchantment: Educational policies, territories and actors strategies. As duas margens do rio: A literacia quantitativa no quotidiano. Avaliar n a escola: The positions mainstream left parties adopt on immigration: Mainstream party strategies towards extreme right parties: The effectiveness of french immigration policy under president Nicolas Sarkozy. The impact of extreme-right parties on immigration policy in Italy and France in the early s.
The end of a strategic opening? The BNP's window of opportunity in the s and its closure in the s. British and French policies towards high-skilled immigration during the s: Estar dentro, estando fora: Trends and dilemmas facing environmental education in Portugal: A study protocol to evaluate the relationship between outdoor air pollution and pregnancy outcomes. The role of non-scholar organisations in environmental education: Who's afraid of Local Agenda 21?
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Top-down and bottom-up perspectives on local sustainability. Emigrating peasants and returning emigrants: Camponeses emigrados e emigrantes regressados: Regresso de emigrantes e desenvolvimento regional en Portugal. Relatos de um quotidiano fugaz: The contribution of the intervention in social networks and community social work at the local level to social and human development.
Media and generations in Portugal. O poder do jornalismo e o poder da imagem: The media as a window on the past? The impact of television and newspaper consumption on knowledge of the democratic transition in Portugal. The Portuguese media system and the normative roles of the media: The Portuguese Legislative Election: Os programas eleitorais das europeias de Campaign Individualisation before and after the Bailout: Which Europe do the portuguese parties want?
Identity, representation and scope of governance in the portuguese euromanifestos Velhas e novas formas de activismo. Enlightenment and economic thought: Os nomes da terra: Mapping social work across 10 countries: Contemporary changes and civil society in Portugal and the Russian Federation. Crisis and cultural change: Assessing the public willingness to contribute income to mitigate the effects of climate change: Neoliberalism and austerity in Spain, Portugal and South Africa: Mapping maritime sustainability issues with stakeholder groups.
A Expo '98 de Lisboa: Associativismo, sociedade divil e democracia. Citizens' attitudes towards democratic deliberation. Political tolerance in Portugal and Spain: The predicament of Young Journalists: The study of Portugal. Mapping cultural policy in Portugal: Cultura de leitura e classe leitora em Portugal.
The influence of service climate, identity strength, and contextual ambidexterity upon the performance of public organizations. Learning how to work in the arts field in Portugal: Redes de sociabilidade, identidades e trocas geracionais. O Porto sentido pelo graffiti: Ser artista imigrante em Portugal: Carreiras e circuitos de musicos brasileiros: Notes from an ethnography of urban flows.
Building bridges across time and space. Art builds the city: Boston community murals and local identity. The neighborhood strikes back: Ao encontro da sociologia visual. Transformative community mental health: Respuestas a las encuestas. Em defesa da iniciativa Novas Oportunidades: Qualificar as Pessoas, Abrir as Sociedades: Qualificar as pessoas, abrir as sociedades: Adolescents, family, status and health: Mending nets in the South: Esiste una rete di sicurezza sociale in Sud Europa? Mosaico de festas de toiros en Portugal.
Le visible et l'Invisible: O campo da tauromaquia. Jovens da escola da Mague: State, science and empire in the portuguese atlantic s—s. Science, patronage and academies in early seventeenth-century Portugal: Mixtures, material substances and corpuscles in the Early Modern Aristotelian-Thomistic tradition: A poetical critique of Aristotle: The portuguese astronomer Melo e Simas O poder dos livros: The making of an academic tradition: The eclipse, the astronomer and his audience: Frederico Oom and the total solar eclipse of 28 May in Portugal.
Measuring the heavens to rule the territory: Filipe Folque, the teaching of astronomy at the Lisbon Polytechnic School and the modernization of the State apparatus in nineteenth century Portugal. Manuel Galhano Lourosa and the political Restoration of Portugal, The making of a Tychonic cosmology: Cristoforo Borri and the development of Tycho Brahe's astronomical system. Cristoforo Borri and the epistemological status of mathematics in seventeenth-century Portugal. Tokens of the future: A Disputa do Cometa: Regulation, public interest and research in the professional field: Clustering of architectural floor plans: Baixa from to Lisbon and its port: A biografia em Portugal: Encounters and disencounters in the transport system on the South Bank of the Tagus Estuary: The changing face of European ports as a result of their evolving use since the nineteenth century.
Les Chemins de fer portugais: Young individuals as microcosms of the Portuguese crisis. Romantic turning points and patterns of leaving home: Variability in the transitions to adulthood in Europe: The organization of household work in same-sex couples. Individualized housing careers in early adulthood: Os artistas de circo.
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Portuguese fight against match-fixing: Mitos, percepciones y actitudes frente a los resultados combinados en Portugal: Social classes and tolerance to corruption in Portugal: The discursive use of the concept of 'corruption' in parliamentary debates during the Portuguese Estado Novo — Why voters do not throw the rascals out? Civil administration as a source of malaise: Planning in turbulent times: Rethinking Cities in Contentious Times: The politics of suburbia: Israel's settlement policy and the production of space in the metropolitan area of Jerusalem.
The political geographies of urban polarization: Two states or not two states? Leadership and peace making in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Latin Americans in Portugal. The value of grounded theory for disentangling inequalities in maternal-child healthcare in contexts of diversity: The revolution in local government: The agrarian reform under the Portuguese revolution, Cholera, plague, typhus, influenza and smallpox, Epidemics in the news: Fighting disease and epidemics: Ricardo Jorge and the internationalization of Portuguese science.
Landlords, tenants and agrarian reform: The Portuguese cholera morbus epidemic of as seen by the press. O Porto e as epidemias: Portugal no contexto Europeu. Women in Portuguese politics. Party politics in Portugal: Memory and trauma of the Portuguese agrarian reform: On cultural plurality in the public sphere: Online staging of femininity: On the predominance of cognitivism in media and communication studies.
Populism, extremism and media: Articulando o individual com o colectivo: Political participation in an age of mediatisation. Lisbon places, urban experiences. Belongings and interactions negotiating portuguese speaking identities in Boston. Les ciutats es fan per dins: Participative social work and urban change: As cidades fazem-se por dentro: Practical training enters Portuguese universities. Entre a rua e a paisagem: Uma certa ideia de cidade: Antropologia urbana entre Portugal e o Brasil: Pleins feux sur la ville: Sociabilidad masculina y consumo de alcohol: O lugar da antropologia.
Unveiling the experiences of young people in foster care: European top managers' support for work-life arrangements. Crowding out, crowding in or just a matter of transformation? Informal financial support in Portugal and Sweden. Tiempos, trabajos e identidades. Moving into adulthood in a southern European country: Workplace abuse and harassment: Describe all or just a few?
Decomposition of the gender wage gap in Portugal, Fault lines in education: What do we mean by school dropout? Early School Leaving and the shifting of paradigms in school dropout measurement. Gender and civil-military relations. The sociological dimension of external military interventions: Gender relations in the Armed Forces: Gendered culture in peacekeeping operations.
Women in the Portuguese Armed Forces: Military Constraints and Professional Identities. O que pensam os militares portugueses do peacekeeping? Spanish monarchy and the Portuguese Republic: Community involvement in school management in Portugal. Cultural organizations and communication in Portuguese decentralization policy. Public Relations, Satisfaction and Commitment. Schools 'without walls' during the portuguese revolution: A Maria da Fonte e a Patuleia: Differentiation versus homogenisation of education systems in Europe: The Portuguese schools' evaluation programme: Perspectives of social entrepreneurship in Portugal: European bi-national marriages in Portugal and EU social integration.
Valores societais em Portugal: A typology of professional situations in the analysis of graduate transition from higher education to the labor market. Convergences and disparities of work orientations among recent graduates in Portugal. Measuring corporate reputation in B2B markets: The correlates of meeting physical activity recommendations: Os licenciados em Portugal: